HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

HS-ESS1    Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and non-cyclic variations over centuries.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include details of the atomic and sub-atomic processes involved with the sun’s nuclear fusion.]
HS-ESS1-2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
HS-ESS1-3. Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] [Assessment Boundary: Details of the many different nucleosynthesis pathways for stars of differing masses are not assessed.]
HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ability of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Examples include evidence of the ages oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust decreasing with distance away from a central ancient core of the continental plate (a result of past plate interactions).]
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-6)
  • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (HS-ESS1-6)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

 

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

Stability and Change

 

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-ESS1-2)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS1.C (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5); HS.PS4.A (HS-ESS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); MS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); MS.ESS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS2-4), (HS-ESS2-6); MS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-5)
SL.11-12.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-ESS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSA-SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSF-IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. (HS-ESS1-6)
HSS-ID.B.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how those variables are related. (HS-ESS1-6)

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and non-cyclic variations over centuries.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include details of the atomic and sub-atomic processes involved with the sun’s nuclear fusion.]
HS-ESS1-2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
HS-ESS1-3. Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] [Assessment Boundary: Details of the many different nucleosynthesis pathways for stars of differing masses are not assessed.]
HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ability of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Examples include evidence of the ages oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust decreasing with distance away from a central ancient core of the continental plate (a result of past plate interactions).]
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-6)
  • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (HS-ESS1-6)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

 

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

Stability and Change

 

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-ESS1-2)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS1.C (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5); HS.PS4.A (HS-ESS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); MS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); MS.ESS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS2-4), (HS-ESS2-6); MS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-5)
SL.11-12.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-ESS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSA-SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSF-IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. (HS-ESS1-6)
HSS-ID.B.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how those variables are related. (HS-ESS1-6)

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and non-cyclic variations over centuries.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include details of the atomic and sub-atomic processes involved with the sun’s nuclear fusion.]
HS-ESS1-2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
HS-ESS1-3. Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] [Assessment Boundary: Details of the many different nucleosynthesis pathways for stars of differing masses are not assessed.]
HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ability of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Examples include evidence of the ages oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust decreasing with distance away from a central ancient core of the continental plate (a result of past plate interactions).]
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-6)
  • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (HS-ESS1-6)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

 

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

Stability and Change

 

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-ESS1-2)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS1.C (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5); HS.PS4.A (HS-ESS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); MS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); MS.ESS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS2-4), (HS-ESS2-6); MS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-5)
SL.11-12.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-ESS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4),(HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
HSA-SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSF-IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. (HS-ESS1-6)
HSS-ID.B.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how those variables are related. (HS-ESS1-6)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.