MS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

MS-LS3   Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS3-1. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis, or specific types of mutations.]
MS-LS3-2. Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using models such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variation.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

  • Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. (secondary to MS-LS3-2)

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.LS1.A (MS-LS3-1); MS.LS4.A (MS-LS3-1)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.LS3.A (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); 3.LS3.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS1.A (MS-LS3-1); HS.LS1.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS3.A (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS3.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
RST.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-LS3-2)
6.SP.B.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-LS3-2)

MS-LS3   Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS3-1. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis, or specific types of mutations.]
MS-LS3-2. Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using models such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variation.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

  • Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. (secondary to MS-LS3-2)

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.LS1.A (MS-LS3-1); MS.LS4.A (MS-LS3-1)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.LS3.A (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); 3.LS3.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS1.A (MS-LS3-1); HS.LS1.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS3.A (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS3.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
RST.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-LS3-2)
6.SP.B.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-LS3-2)

MS-LS3   Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS3-1. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis, or specific types of mutations.]
MS-LS3-2. Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using models such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variation.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

  • Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. (secondary to MS-LS3-2)

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.LS1.A (MS-LS3-1); MS.LS4.A (MS-LS3-1)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.LS3.A (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); 3.LS3.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS1.A (MS-LS3-1); HS.LS1.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS3.A (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2); HS.LS3.B (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
RST.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.(MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-LS3-2)
6.SP.B.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-LS3-2)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.