4.Earth's Systems: Processes that Shape the Earth

4-ESS2   Earth's Systems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

4-ESS1-1. Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river cut through the rock.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific knowledge of the mechanism of rock formation or memorization of specific rock formations and layers. Assessment is limited to relative time.]
4-ESS2-1. Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. [Clarification Statement: Examples of variables to test could include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, speed of wind, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to a single form of weathering or erosion.]
4-ESS2-2. Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.  [Clarification Statement: Maps can include topographic maps of Earth’s land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.]
4-ESS3-2. Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include designing an earthquake resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to introducing quantitative approaches to collecting data and conducting multiple trials of qualitative observations. When possible and feasible, digital tools should be used.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

ESS2.E: Biogeology

ESS3.B: Natural Hazards

ETS1.B: Designing Solutions to Engineering Problems

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes consistent patterns in natural systems. (4-ESS1-1)

Connections to other DCIs in fourth grade:

4.EST1.C (4-ESS3-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.ETS1.A (4-ESS3-2); 2.ESS1.C (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1); 2.ESS2.A (4-ESS2-1); 2.ESS2.B (4- ESS2-2); 2.ESS2.C (4-ESS2-2); 2.ETS1.B (4-ESS3-2); 2.ETS1.C (4-ESS3-2); 3.LS4.A (4-ESS1-1); 5.ESS2.A (4-ESS2-1); 5.ESS2.C (4-ESS2-2); MS.LS4.A (4-ESS1-1); MS.ESS1.C (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2); MS.ESS2.A (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2),(4-ESS3-2); MS.ESS2.B (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2); MS.ESS3.B (4-ESS3-2); MS.ETS1.B (4-ESS3-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4-ESS3-2)
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS2-2)
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (4-ESS3-2)
W.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2)
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)
W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4-ESS1-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1),(4- ESS3-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)(4-ESS3-2)
MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. (4-ESS2-1)
4.MD.A.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)
4.MD.A.2 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. (4-ESS2-1),(4-ESS2-2)
4.OA.A.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. (4-ESS3-2)

4-ESS2   Earth's Systems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

4-ESS1-1. Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river cut through the rock.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific knowledge of the mechanism of rock formation or memorization of specific rock formations and layers. Assessment is limited to relative time.]
4-ESS2-1. Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. [Clarification Statement: Examples of variables to test could include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, speed of wind, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to a single form of weathering or erosion.]
4-ESS2-2. Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.  [Clarification Statement: Maps can include topographic maps of Earth’s land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.]
4-ESS3-2. Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include designing an earthquake resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to introducing quantitative approaches to collecting data and conducting multiple trials of qualitative observations. When possible and feasible, digital tools should be used.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

ESS2.E: Biogeology

ESS3.B: Natural Hazards

ETS1.B: Designing Solutions to Engineering Problems

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes consistent patterns in natural systems. (4-ESS1-1)

Connections to other DCIs in fourth grade:

4.EST1.C (4-ESS3-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.ETS1.A (4-ESS3-2); 2.ESS1.C (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1); 2.ESS2.A (4-ESS2-1); 2.ESS2.B (4- ESS2-2); 2.ESS2.C (4-ESS2-2); 2.ETS1.B (4-ESS3-2); 2.ETS1.C (4-ESS3-2); 3.LS4.A (4-ESS1-1); 5.ESS2.A (4-ESS2-1); 5.ESS2.C (4-ESS2-2); MS.LS4.A (4-ESS1-1); MS.ESS1.C (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2); MS.ESS2.A (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2),(4-ESS3-2); MS.ESS2.B (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2); MS.ESS3.B (4-ESS3-2); MS.ETS1.B (4-ESS3-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4-ESS3-2)
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS2-2)
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (4-ESS3-2)
W.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2)
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)
W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4-ESS1-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1),(4- ESS3-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)(4-ESS3-2)
MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. (4-ESS2-1)
4.MD.A.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)
4.MD.A.2 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. (4-ESS2-1),(4-ESS2-2)
4.OA.A.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. (4-ESS3-2)

4-ESS2   Earth's Systems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

4-ESS1-1. Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river cut through the rock.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific knowledge of the mechanism of rock formation or memorization of specific rock formations and layers. Assessment is limited to relative time.]
4-ESS2-1. Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. [Clarification Statement: Examples of variables to test could include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, speed of wind, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to a single form of weathering or erosion.]
4-ESS2-2. Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.  [Clarification Statement: Maps can include topographic maps of Earth’s land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.]
4-ESS3-2. Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include designing an earthquake resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to introducing quantitative approaches to collecting data and conducting multiple trials of qualitative observations. When possible and feasible, digital tools should be used.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

ESS2.E: Biogeology

ESS3.B: Natural Hazards

ETS1.B: Designing Solutions to Engineering Problems

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes consistent patterns in natural systems. (4-ESS1-1)

Connections to other DCIs in fourth grade:

4.EST1.C (4-ESS3-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.ETS1.A (4-ESS3-2); 2.ESS1.C (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1); 2.ESS2.A (4-ESS2-1); 2.ESS2.B (4- ESS2-2); 2.ESS2.C (4-ESS2-2); 2.ETS1.B (4-ESS3-2); 2.ETS1.C (4-ESS3-2); 3.LS4.A (4-ESS1-1); 5.ESS2.A (4-ESS2-1); 5.ESS2.C (4-ESS2-2); MS.LS4.A (4-ESS1-1); MS.ESS1.C (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2); MS.ESS2.A (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2),(4-ESS3-2); MS.ESS2.B (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2); MS.ESS3.B (4-ESS3-2); MS.ETS1.B (4-ESS3-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4-ESS3-2)
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS2-2)
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (4-ESS3-2)
W.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-2)
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)
W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4-ESS1-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1),(4- ESS3-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)(4-ESS3-2)
MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. (4-ESS2-1)
4.MD.A.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. (4-ESS1-1),(4-ESS2-1)
4.MD.A.2 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. (4-ESS2-1),(4-ESS2-2)
4.OA.A.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. (4-ESS3-2)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.