HS.Chemical Reactions

HS-PS1 Matter and its Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [Clarification Statement: Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, of carbon and oxygen, or of carbon and hydrogen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to chemical reactions involving main group elements and combustion reactions.]
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.]
HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to simple reactions in which there are only two reactants; evidence from temperature, concentration, and rate data; and qualitative relationships between rate and temperature.]
HS-PS1-6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants or removing products.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to specifying the change in only one variable at a time. Assessment does not include calculating equilibrium constants and concentrations.]
HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical ideas to communicate the proportional relationships between masses of atoms in the reactants and the products, and the translation of these relationships to the macroscopic scale using the mole as the conversion from the atomic to the macroscopic scale. Emphasis is on assessing students’ use of mathematical thinking and not on memorization and rote application of problem-solving techniques.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include complex chemical reactions.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

  • Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (secondary to HS-PS1-6)

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Stability and Change

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5); HS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-6),(HS-PS1-7); HS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-4); HS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7); HS.LS2.B (HS-PS1-7); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7); MS.PS1.B (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-6),(HS-PS1-7); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-4); MS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7); MS.LS2.B (HS-PS1-7); MS.ESS2.A (HS-PS1-7)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-5)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-5)
WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-6)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)

HS-PS1 Matter and its Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [Clarification Statement: Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, of carbon and oxygen, or of carbon and hydrogen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to chemical reactions involving main group elements and combustion reactions.]
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.]
HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to simple reactions in which there are only two reactants; evidence from temperature, concentration, and rate data; and qualitative relationships between rate and temperature.]
HS-PS1-6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants or removing products.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to specifying the change in only one variable at a time. Assessment does not include calculating equilibrium constants and concentrations.]
HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical ideas to communicate the proportional relationships between masses of atoms in the reactants and the products, and the translation of these relationships to the macroscopic scale using the mole as the conversion from the atomic to the macroscopic scale. Emphasis is on assessing students’ use of mathematical thinking and not on memorization and rote application of problem-solving techniques.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include complex chemical reactions.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

  • Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (secondary to HS-PS1-6)

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Stability and Change

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5); HS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-6),(HS-PS1-7); HS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-4); HS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7); HS.LS2.B (HS-PS1-7); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7); MS.PS1.B (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-6),(HS-PS1-7); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-4); MS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7); MS.LS2.B (HS-PS1-7); MS.ESS2.A (HS-PS1-7)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-5)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-5)
WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-6)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)

HS-PS1 Matter and its Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [Clarification Statement: Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, of carbon and oxygen, or of carbon and hydrogen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to chemical reactions involving main group elements and combustion reactions.]
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.]
HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to simple reactions in which there are only two reactants; evidence from temperature, concentration, and rate data; and qualitative relationships between rate and temperature.]
HS-PS1-6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants or removing products.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to specifying the change in only one variable at a time. Assessment does not include calculating equilibrium constants and concentrations.]
HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical ideas to communicate the proportional relationships between masses of atoms in the reactants and the products, and the translation of these relationships to the macroscopic scale using the mole as the conversion from the atomic to the macroscopic scale. Emphasis is on assessing students’ use of mathematical thinking and not on memorization and rote application of problem-solving techniques.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include complex chemical reactions.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

  • Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (secondary to HS-PS1-6)

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Stability and Change

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-PS1-7)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5); HS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-6),(HS-PS1-7); HS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-4); HS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7); HS.LS2.B (HS-PS1-7); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7); MS.PS1.B (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-6),(HS-PS1-7); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-5); MS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-4); MS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7); MS.LS2.B (HS-PS1-7); MS.ESS2.A (HS-PS1-7)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-5)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-5)
WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-PS1-2)
WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-6)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-PS1-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-7)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-2),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-4),(HS-PS1-5),(HS-PS1-7)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.