HS.Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems

HS.Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]
HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence from models and simulations to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the details of the specific chemical reactions or identification of macromolecules.]
HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding of the inputs and outputs of the process of cellular respiration.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment should not include identification of the steps or specific processes involved in cellular respiration.]
HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical processes of either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.]
HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to proportional reasoning to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy.]
HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical steps of photosynthesis and respiration.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence. (HS-LS2-3)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-5); HS.PS2.B (HS-LS1-7); HS.PS3.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4); HS.PS3.D (HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4); HS.ESS2.A (HS-LS2-3); HS.ESS2.D (HS-LS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-LS1-6);MS.PS1.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3); MS.PS3.D (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.LS1.C (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.LS2.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.ESS2.A (HS-LS2-5); MS.ESS2.E (HS-LS1-6)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-6)
SL.11-12.5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-4)

HS.Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]
HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence from models and simulations to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the details of the specific chemical reactions or identification of macromolecules.]
HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding of the inputs and outputs of the process of cellular respiration.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment should not include identification of the steps or specific processes involved in cellular respiration.]
HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical processes of either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.]
HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to proportional reasoning to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy.]
HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical steps of photosynthesis and respiration.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence. (HS-LS2-3)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-5); HS.PS2.B (HS-LS1-7); HS.PS3.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4); HS.PS3.D (HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4); HS.ESS2.A (HS-LS2-3); HS.ESS2.D (HS-LS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-LS1-6);MS.PS1.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3); MS.PS3.D (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.LS1.C (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.LS2.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.ESS2.A (HS-LS2-5); MS.ESS2.E (HS-LS1-6)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-6)
SL.11-12.5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-4)

HS.Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]
HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence from models and simulations to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the details of the specific chemical reactions or identification of macromolecules.]
HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding of the inputs and outputs of the process of cellular respiration.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment should not include identification of the steps or specific processes involved in cellular respiration.]
HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical processes of either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.]
HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to proportional reasoning to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy.]
HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical steps of photosynthesis and respiration.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence. (HS-LS2-3)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-5); HS.PS2.B (HS-LS1-7); HS.PS3.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4); HS.PS3.D (HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4); HS.ESS2.A (HS-LS2-3); HS.ESS2.D (HS-LS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-LS1-6);MS.PS1.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3); MS.PS3.D (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.LS1.C (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.LS2.B (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7),(HS-LS2-3),(HS-LS2-4),(HS-LS2-5); MS.ESS2.A (HS-LS2-5); MS.ESS2.E (HS-LS1-6)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS1-6),(HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-6)
SL.11-12.5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-5),(HS-LS1-7)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-4)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.